Replenish: The Next Step in Maximizing Post-Workout Nutrition
In support of man’s enduring struggle to improve on that which he has done in the past, Designer Supplements is proud to unleash the next step in maximizing post-workout nutrition. Through enhancement of the anabolic period immediately following exercise, Replenish is a great tasting post-workout formula that will maximize training, replenish key macro and micro-nutrients necessary for recovery, and put you well on the way to energy storage and growth.
Training – Sending the Signals
From weight lifters to endurance athletes, the process of heavy or strenuous training utilizes energy, depletes glycogen, and breaks down muscle tissue In order to compensate for these effects, the human body must quickly begin sending the signals of repair. Bearing in mind these mechanisms, the post-workout period is an ideal time to exploit the body’s natural signals in order toinitiate recovery and growth,but obviously this can only occur
in the presence of proper nutrition.
While nutritional goals after training are also dependent upon what is consumed before and during training, the time immediately following exercise is when the body is most sensitive to nutrients and the proper fuels can rapidly switch the body from a state of catabolism to a state of anabolic growth.
While the exact chain of events leading from a damaged muscle to a fully repaired and stronger muscle are still being decoded by scientists, what bodybuilders have known for decades is that protein and carbohydrates are essential to the process. While this anecdotal information has seemed obvious for years, recent science has moved into the more credible direction of amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, and glucose uptake for muscle repair and has opened many eyes and minds to new means by which the recovery process can be enhanced to exploit growth pathways.
Combining the fundamental knowledge known for decades and proven by science with some novel inclusions to improve the efficiency of the formula, Designer Supplements has formulated Replenish to work with the cascade of signals sent by the body in response to training. Without further ado, allow us to explain each inclusion in the formula and elaborate on how Replenish works.
In order for protein synthesis to occur in the body, the body must be supplied with the raw materials, namely amino acids. Since post-training is such a delicate time for anabolism and protein cannot pass through the intestinal wall without first being broken down into its constituent amino acids, a fast-digesting protein source such as whey is ideal. In order to supply enough amino acids for protein synthesis rates to significantly increase, Replenish uses high quality whey protein as the back-bone of its formula, with each serving supplying thirty grams (30g). While daily individual protein needs may vary, 30 grams of whey plus the free form amino acids found in Replenish is a sufficient amount to promote anabolism and recovery after resistance training in bodybuilders and athletes alike.
While protein is absolutely necessary for the reasons listed above, carbohydrate intake after training is also of significant importance for a number of reasons. Not only do carbohydrates replenish depleted glycogen (stored glucose) reserves, they also stimulate insulin release which mediates the uptake of nutrients into the cells. This all important function of insulin takes place via the cells glucose transporter system.
The glucose transporters (GLUT) are a family of receptors that allow glucose to enter the cell. There are four types, aptly named GLUT1 through GLUT4. While GLUT1 through GLUT3 are intrinsically important to bodily function, GLUT4 receptors are our point of interest as they are only present in muscle and fat cells. Located primarily beneath the cell membrane where they essentially remain quiescent during the fasted state, the introduction of insulin to the environment leads to a large increase in the translocation (relocation) of the GLUT4 receptors to the cell membrane. Page 1 Through this translocation, the number of “doors” through which glucose can enter the cell is rapidly increased and the insulin signalling pathway kick starts several processes which contribute towards muscle repair and growth.
Like protein, carbohydrates must also be broken down into their simplest form to pass through the gut mucosa. After training, fast digesting carbohydrate sources are recommended to get carbohydrates (and more importantly, the insulin response which carbohydrates induce) to the muscle in order to begin the repair and growth phases triggered by intense training. One serving of Replenish contains thirty grams (30g) of carbohydrates in a blended formula of fast and slow-digesting sources, namely maltodextrin and oat fiber. While some may prefer purely fast-acting carbohydrates, the carbohydrate source in Replenish is a fast/slow blend due to the manner in which carbohydrates physiologically enter the cell. This process, termed active transport, actually limits the number of glucose molecules that can enter the cell at any one time and as such, makes any attempt to “saturate” the cell in an all-or-none manner illogical as much of the glucose will be oxidized rather than stored. A better solution is to provide fast-digesting carbohydrates like maltodextrin to activate the receptor sites rapidly, while oat fiber provides the backup for further uptake later in the recovery period. While 30 grams of carbohydrates may seem excessive to some who are cutting and miniscule to those looking to gain mass, the carbohydrate blend in Replenish works synergistically with the rest of the formula in order to promote an adequate insulin response while avoiding potential spill-over to adipose.
As any athlete knows, when you sweat you lose electrolytes and any sort of electrolyte depletion can hinder muscle repair during the critical post workout period. While simply repleting electrolytes would be adequate, Replenish goes one step further by including the electrolytes calcium and potassium in their citrate forms, plus magnesium in the acetate form (the salts of citric acid and acetic acid respectively). Upon digestion, the body dissociates the mineral from the base salt, thus allowing citrate to be used as a metabolite in the energy (Krebs) cycle for ATP synthesis while the acetate supplies an acetyl group to combine with Coenzyme A (CoA) to form acetyl-CoA which is also used during energy production and carbohydrate metabolism in the Krebs cycle. Acetate may also even enhance fatty acid oxidation in the liver1, lower the insulin response to carbohydrate intake2, and lower the amount of blood sugar after eating.
An additional benefit of these electrolyte salts is that both citrate and acetate have a pH-buffering effect on the cell. Under homeostatic conditions, natural concentrations of acetic acid are usually kept quite low in order to avoid disrupting the control of cellular pH. This metabolic regulation takes place because the chief controller of glycolysis (the use of stored carbohydrate for fuel) is provided by the enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK) which is extensively pH sensitive. Acidifying (lowering) pH acts to inhibit the actions of PFK, thereby promoting glycogen storage (if it cannot be used for fuel, it gets stored,) growth and repair potential. Research has demonstrated that both acetate4, 5, 6 and citrate7 enhance glycogen synthesis and repletion in muscle tissue. In addition to their importance in muscle contraction and metabolic function, the electrolytes calcium, potassium and magnesium act to draw additional water into the cell, replenish lost reserves during training and further enhance the anabolic state.
Citrulline malate is a compound comprised of the amino acid Citrulline with an attached malate molecule. While vastly popular when used as a pre-workout enhancer due to its significant effects on limiting fatigue8 and promoting endurance and aerobic performance9, Replenish includes citrulline malate because it also functions extremely well for post-workout recovery. Although not fully understood, it is thought that the malate can promote ATP replenishment and even help replace phosphocreatine (PC) stores due to its place as an intermediate in the Krebs cycle9. Additionally, the citrulline portion of the compound not only helps buffer toxic ammonia build-up from training by promoting renal bicarbonate re-absorption10, but also helps to promote Nitric Oxide (NO) release11, 12 which science is now showing to be a very important signalling molecule possibly involved in protein synthesis13 and the growth phase that follows training. It is partially for this reason that citrulline is also found in our fantastic Nitric Oxide product, NO-Limits.
Creatine Ethyl Ester
Creatine has been a bodybuilding favorite for many years due to its notable effects on strength and lean body mass gains. While creatine monohydrate may suffice for some, recently developed ethyl ester technology has been unveiled to enhance creatine’s bioavailability and improve uptake while generally decreasing the reported stomach cramps and bloating that plagued so many using creatine monohydrate. It is the most studied ergogenic supplement available with studies ranging from its efficacy for replacing creatine stores depleted during training14, 15, 16, its effect on replenishing ATP15, 16, and its long-term safety17, 18. The majority of users also report an induced cellular volu- Page 2 REPLENISH By Designer Supplements mization effect that results in strength increases and lean body mass gains19. Additionally, through its mechanistic enhancement of intracellular water and creatine retention in muscle cells, the ingredient also enhances endurance and makes for increased productivity during training. For more information on Creatine Ethyl Ester and its fantastic effects on athletic performance, please consider Designer Supplements XCEED.
Leucine is an incredible amino acid and has recently become the single most recognizable amino acid responsible for growth and mass gains in the bodybuilding community. The benefits of free form Leucine consumption are directly related to the amino acid’s favorable effects on stimulating protein synthesis – a two stage process described by the literature as transcription and translation. Simply put, transcription involves reading DNA to create a mirror image, while translation then uses the mirror image at the ribosome in order to create a protein based on the particular genetic code of that DNA. Unfortunately, the body’s leucine pool is depleted during exercise as it is used for energy in the muscle20. Leucine appears to work via several pathways, the first being the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)21, 22, 23, 24. This mechanism is important because mTOR regulates cell division and the translation stage of protein synthesis24, 25. mTOR is also activated when sufficient ATP reserves signal the “fed state”, however this is independent from the effect leucine has on mTOR26. Interestingly, leucine oxidation in the cell unleashes more ATP than an equal amount of glucose27. In addition to direct effects at mTOR, there also appears to be a synergistic role involving a kinase called p70S6k, with the kinase being directly activated by mTOR28. p70S6k targets the ‘S6’ ribosomal protein and phosphorylates S6 which then induces protein synthesis at the ribosome. Interestingly, research also indicates that leucine has the ability to completely skip the mTOR step and activate p70S6K directly28. This concept suggests multiple alternative channels for promoting protein synthesis and supports the idea of combining Leucine with protein and carbohydrates to stimulate maximum synthesis rates. There is also research supporting a synergistic effect between leucine and insulin on mTOR via the Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway29, also supporting the use of leucine with carbohydrates to illicit an insulin response. In fact, research indicates that carbohydrates combined with protein and leucine stimulates higher protein synthesis rates than equal values of carbohydrate and protein alone30, 31.
Isoleucine, along with leucine and valine, form what are referred to as the branched chain amino acids. As noted above, while Leucine appears to be the amino acid most responsible for protein synthesis, isoleucine is included in Replenish due to it’s effects on insulin signalling. While insulin is generally classed as an anti-catabolic hormone, the combination of insulin with amino acids provides far more than an anti-catabolic effect and actually becomes very much anabolic as one of the central triggers of protein synthesis.
While highly complex, the insulin signalling pathway is a relatively well understood series of events that occur when a rise in blood sugar is detected and insulin is secreted to control it. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor causing several effects that ultimately lead to the activation of something called Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (IRS-1). When active, IRS-1 alters its structure to allow the kinase Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) to bind to it, thereby activating PI3K which in turn activates Protein Kinase B (PKB). It is this activation of PKB that promotes GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface, thereby allowing the rapid influx of glucose from the blood into the cell. An additional benefit of PKB is that the kinase also inactivates the enzyme Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) 32, which is responsible for inhibiting glycogen synthesis. Isoleucine is considered an insulin secretagogue and directly activates PI3K, thereby enhancing nutrient uptake and potentiating the insulin cascade through the mechanism mentioned above33, 34, thus promoting glycogen synthesis. Incidentally, leucine also appears to be connected to PI3K activation35, 36. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that PI3K appears to be the mode through which Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) exerts its anabolic effect in the body, but the area requires further research.
4-hydroxyisoleucine is an amino acid derivative of Isoleucine that is primarily found in the herb fenugreek. Through two unique effects, 4-hydroxyisoleucine confers further benefit to the athlete in the post-training window. By first stimulating insulin release and then further sensitizing the cell to the effects of insulin, this ingredient allows for better control of blood sugar and increased nutrient uptake. It appears to exert its insulinotropic (insulin secreting) effect by directly stimulating the beta cells of the pancreas38, 39. Interestingly, this effect appears to be glucose-dependant, with REPLENISH By Designer Supplements an amplified effect noticed with higher glucose concentrations39. The insulin sensitizing effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine appears to be mediated through a direct effect on the early stages of the insulin signalling pathway – specifically PI3K40. As you may have gathered, these effects are especially beneficial after training when insulin sensitivity is already quite high from the constant muscular contractions of lifting weights or strenuous aerobic exercise. But for added incentive, 4-hydroxyisoleucine may also enhance glycogen synthesis after exercise when combined with carbohydrates41, but also appears to lower triglycerides42, 43 and cholesterol43.